reintroduction

Seana Walsh, National Tropical Botanical Garden

When conducting plant reintroductions with the help of volunteers it is useful to do a measure of advance planning. Considerations might include such items as taking into account how many volunteers are attending and making sure that there are enough tools and gloves available. It is important to be certain that each plant is labeled with a unique id that corresponds to a field tag. It is good practice to survey the reintroduction site in advance and place the field tags where the plants will go. On the day of planting, explain the full protocol, from how to clean boots going into (and leaving) the site, to how to best remove the plant from its pot and orient it in the new setting. On site, consider providing snacks and taking group photos. After the planting show appreciation for the received assistance by sending a thank you note or following up after six months with a picture of how well the plants are doing. Showing appreciation for the volunteers will likely encourage them to return and volunteer again.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Monday, December 2, 2019

Johnny Randall, North Carolina Botanical Garden

This video reviews an experimental technique that refines optimal practice for planting the federally endangered harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum) along a river. After selecting a suitable site, obtaining permission, and propagating many plants, North Carolina Botanical Garden staff and volunteers planted 70 seedlings planted into replicated plots of terracell, coir, and natural cobble. Using the two stabilizers required different planting techniques.  Monitoring following planting day revealed that coir fabric supported the best plant growth even after many years.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Monday, August 26, 2019

Kim McCue, Shannon Felberg and Steve Blackwell
Desert Botanic Garden

Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 4, 2018

Seeding annual plants for rare plant restoration and reintroduction

My colleagues and I are working on a large rare plant project on the Channel Islands in California. One of our objectives is to increase population size of small occurrences and also establishing new populations in suitable habitat to provide redundancy. For the annual plants in our project (e.g., MalacothrixPentachaetaThysanocarpus) and possibly one Dudleya species, we plan to use locally collected seed, bulk that seed in our greenhouse, and then return it to the islands. I know that seeding often has low success rates.

Question Category: 
Joyce Maschinski poses with a sentry milkvetch (Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax), a species she helped direct toward recovery with reintroductions and management.
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Photo Credit: 
Joyce Maschinski

CPC Best Reintroduction Practice Guidelines: Astragalus bibullatus Case Study

Matthew Albrecht, Missouri Botanical Garden (SePPCon 2016)

Reintroduction is a critical component of rare species conservation with the goal of continuing evolution in a natural context. Within the southeastern U.S. 81% of recovery plans include reintroduction as a proposed conservation action, while in Hawaii almost all plant recovery plans recommend reintroduction to ensure persistence in the wild. Following CPC Reintroduction Guidelines can help improve success. Ex situ conservation and in situ habitat management should precede reintroduction. Prior to reintroduction gathering information about species biology, genetics, mating system, interactions and habitat is advised.  Aspects of designing a reintroduction include considering genetic,demographic and horticulture. Whether a single or mixed genetic source should be used, how large a founding population and more questions are addressed.    Using an example of Astragalus bibullatus, Matthew describes several aspects of using experimentation to test hypotheses for improving reintroduction success.

This work was presented at the Southeast Partners in Plant Conservation (SePPCon) 2016 Meeting. Learn more about SePPCon here.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Trees Will Adapt, Migrate or Die

Barbara Crane, US Forest Service, National Forest System (SePPCon 2016)

Barbara Crane, USFS, describes special considerations for trees.  Because the are long-lived, they cannot respond quickly to multiple threats from pathogens, fire, drought and climate change. Rates of historic migration of 300 to 1200 ft/yr cannot keep up with the rate of changing climate. Understanding genetic variation related to environment and response to change is necessary to conserve forest diversity. For the USFS Southern Region, which is home to 140 tree species, we developed a Genetic Risk Assessment System and identified the top 10 species at risk from climate change. Barbara gives examples of actions with several species and emphasizes that collecting from southern edge of a species range may capture valuable unique genes.

This work was presented at the Southeast Partners in Plant Conservation (SePPCon) 2016 Meeting. Learn more about SePPCon here.

Date Recorded: 
Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Johnny Randall, North Carolina Botanic Garden (SePPCon 2016)

Johnny reviews the Center for Plant Conservation best practices related to the link between ex situ and in situ actions. Ex situ collections held as seeds or whole plants can help with research on germination or cultivation and reintroductions to the wild. He discusses clues that may trigger ex situ action, reviews the organizations that help guide the practice, and describes the link to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. He reviews patterns of where seed banking is practiced in the world and where it is needed and discusses the continuum of seed types that require different efforts for ex situ conservation. He briefly describes ethics and prioritization for collections, protocols for sampling genetic diversity, and techniques for processing orthodox seeds. Genetic concerns about ex situ collections include genetic drift, adaptation to cultivation, mutation accumulation and artificial selection.  He showcases the NCBG program and accomplishments with partners.

This work was presented at the Southeast Partners in Plant Conservation (SePPCon) 2016 Meeting. Learn more about SePPCon here.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Tom Kaye, Institute for Applied Ecology

Golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta) is listed as threatened and has become regionally extinct in the southern portion of its range due to habitat conversion.  A few wild populations remain in Washington and British Columbia.  Efforts to conserve the species in Oregon have emphasized wild seed collection across multiple remnant WA populations, agricultural seed increase, plug planting and seeding into restoration sites and prairies, and follow up management (including mowing, burning, and seed addition to increase plant diversity).  Concurrent research has demonstrated that the species is a generalist hemiparasite that benefits from having multiple hosts, underscoring the need to maintain or enhance plant diversity at reintroduction sites.  In addition, field tests have helped narrow the habitat type in which the species will thrive.  Since 2010, the species has established and increased in Oregon dramatically through reintroduction on conserved public and private lands, to over 350,000 plants across 23 populations in 2018.  The US Fish and Wildlife Service is currently considering delisting the species due to these recent successes with population establishment.

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Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 3, 2019

Vanessa Handley, University of California Botanical Garden

University of California Botanical Garden (UCBG) has long been engaged in recovery efforts for State and Federally endangered large-flowered fiddleneck, Amsinckia grandiflora. Initially UCBG staff focused on creating a substantial seed bank for the species and, through nursery augmentation of wild-collections, generated a bank of over 100,000 seed (stored along maternal lines). In 2016, a subset of this seed was deployed for a large-scale reintroduction effort at three sites in San Joaquin County, California. The reintroduction was conducted in partnership with Vollmar Natural Lands Consulting (with funding from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) and entailed cultivation and outplanting of over 4000 seedlings. This endeavor - made more challenging by severe terrain and freezing winter rains - resulted in modest persistence in 2017, followed by a banner spring in 2018. UCBG staff and volunteers completed a supplementary round of outplanting this past winter and, by March, all three introduction sites were awash with orange - the Amsinckia grandiflora Super Bloom! This exciting outcome was potentiated by engagement of diverse stakeholders: environmental consultants, multiple agency partners, public and private landowners and UCBG. While the taxon still has a long path to recovery, this preliminary success is a testament to the power of these partnerships. Our recovery implementation strategy will be discussed.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 3, 2019