maternal line

Alexandra Seglias (Denver Botanic Gardens)

Nicola Ripley (Betty Ford Alpine Gardens)

Brittany Roberts Marshall (Betty Ford Alpine Gardens)

 

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Alpine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The Denver Botanic Gardens are seeking to protect rare species from these regions, banking seeds from multiple Alpine populations by maternal line. However, collecting seed from these remote areas comes with multiple challenges. Seed production is dependent on the previous year's winter weather, there is a short window for flowering and seed setting, the phenology changes rapidly, and many sites are difficult to reach.
After gathering seed, researchers at Denver Botanic Gardens perform germination trials and grow seedlings to be reintroduced. Plants are also added to the living collections at Denver Botanic Garden and the Betty Ford Alpine Botanic Gardens to further preserve these rare species.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Thursday, May 21, 2020

Dr. Johnny Randall, North Carolina Botanical Garden

The infamous Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, found across North Carolina and into South Carolina, has been seen to be declining in recent years. It is currently under review for federal listing, is ranked G2 on NatureServe, and considered vulnerable by RedList. Threats to this charismatic plant include poaching, trampling, and changes in fire and hydrology. Dr. Randall of the North Carolina Botanical Garden is conducting a double-pronged conservation effort, collecting and banking seeds by maternal line, and doing genetic analysis across the populations. Results from the genetic data suggest four distinct clusters that closely match phylogeographic areas.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Dr. Sean Hoban, The Morton Arboretum, Taylor Callicrate, Species Conservation Toolkit Initiative, Chicago Zoological Society, Susan Deans, Plant Biology and Conservation Program, Northwestern University, Michael Dosmann, The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Jeremie Fant, Chicago Botanic Garden, Oliver Gailing, University of Göttingen, Kayri Havens, Chicago Botanic Garden, Andrew Hipp, The Morton Arboretum, Priyanka Kadav, Michigan Technological University, Andrea Kramer, Chicago Botanic Garden, Matthew Lobdell, The Morton Arboretum, Tracy Magellan, Abby Meyer, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Emma Spence, Center for Tree Science, The Morton Arboretum, Patrick Thompson, Auburn University Raakel Toppila, Seana Walsh, National Tropical Botanical Garden, Murphy Westwood, The Morton Arboretum, Jordan Wood, Illinois Natural History Survey, M. Patrick Griffith, Montgomery Botanical Center

Ex situ collections such as botanic gardens inspire and educate the public, provide material for scientific study, and produce material for ecological restoration. The challenge for an efficient and effective collection is safeguarding high genetic and ecological diversity in as few samples as possible, due to the relatively small resources available for conservation. A botanic garden might have resources to maintain a few to a few hundred plants of priority species in conservation collections, but not the thousands that seed banks can preserve. Providing scientifically grounded recommendations for the number of individuals that need to be conserved, and how to collect from the wild and manage collections over time, is a pressing need. Previous work using case studies and modeling of important biological traits has established the fact that some species must be sampled differently, and that widely used standard sample sizes might not be optimal practice for capturing the maximum diversity. We present here a comparative study of ex situ gene conservation in three southeastern oaks (Quercus georgiana, oglethorpensis and boyntonii) and two magnolias (M. pyramidata and asheii). Specifically, we use genetic datasets and resampling algorithms to: quantify how much genetic diversity has been captured in a global network of botanic garden collections currently, resample the wild population genetic datasets to determine how much genetic diversity could be captured by varying sample sizes, determine minimal sampling needed to capture 70% and 95% of the genetic diversity, and use a diminishing returns method to calculate optimal stopping points- when additional collection effort no longer provides sufficient gains. Between 62 and 72% of genetic diversity is currently safeguarded for the oaks, and about 80% is conserved for the magnolias. The recommended collection size depends on key decisions by curators about the type of genetic diversity that is valued, but may range from approximately 50 to 200 individuals. We hope that these findings motivate future seed collections from wild provenances for botanic garden collections and stimulate discussion on ex situ gene conservation goals and outcomes.

Date Recorded: 
Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Heather Schneider, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden

Conservation seed collections support species’ survival by acting as an insurance policy in the face of extinction. They can also provide resources for research, restoration and reintroduction. A high-quality conservation seed collection has both depth and breadth – capturing genetic diversity within and geographic diversity among populations. Collecting and storing seeds by maternal line (i.e., seeds from a single individual plant represent one maternal line) provides depth to conservation collections. Previous research has suggested that collecting from 50 maternal lines throughout the geographic extent of a given population increases the odds of capturing the majority of the genetic diversity within that population. Capturing the maximum amount of genetic diversity possible from each population increases the integrity of a conservation collection. Further, keeping maternal lines separate ensures that each line can be equally represented in restoration and reintroduction efforts. Separating seeds by maternal line also creates opportunities for future research, especially when questions center on genetic differences within and between populations. When bulk collections are made, there is only a small chance that each maternal line will be represented when a subsample of the collection is removed for use and valuable information is lost. Although collecting by maternal lines makes seed collection and cleaning more complicated, the amount of information that is retained increases the value of the collection and makes the effort worthwhile.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Thursday, May 2, 2019

Christa Horn and Joyce Maschinski, San Diego Zoo Global and Center for Plant Conservation

The primary purpose of a conservation collection is to support species’ survival and reduce the extinction risk of globally and/or regionally rare species. A conservation collection is an ex situ (offsite) collection of seeds, plant tissues, or whole plants that has accurate records of provenance, maternal lines differentiated, and diverse genetic representation of a species’ wild populations. To be most useful for species survival in the wild, a conservation collection should have depth, meaning that it contains seeds, tissues or whole plants of at least 50 unrelated mother plants, and breadth, meaning it consists of accessions from multiple populations across the range of the species. Conservation collections of seeds should have tests of initial germination and viability, cultivation protocols developed, and periodic testing of long-term viability.

Contributing Author(s): 
Date Recorded: 
Friday, May 4, 2018